SUSAN M. BROOKHART, Ph.D., is Professor Emerita in the School of Education at Duquesne University and an independent educational consultant and author based in Helena, Montana. She is author or co-author of seventeen books and over 70 articles and book chapters on classroom assessment, teacher professional development, and evaluation.
She serves on the editorial boards of several journals and on several national advisory panels. She was named the 2014 Jason Millman Scholar by the Consortium for Research on Educational Assessment and Teaching Effectiveness (CREATE) and is the recipient of the 2015 Samuel J. Messick Memorial Lecture Award from ETS/TOEFL.
Her interests include the role of both formative and summative classroom assessment in student motivation and achievement, the connection between classroom assessment and large-scale assessment, and grading.
Dr Brookhart works with schools, districts, regional educational service units, universities, and states doing professional development. She received her Ph.D. in Educational Research and Evaluation from The Ohio State University, after teaching in both elementary and middle schools.
She was a full-time faculty member at Duquesne University and now balances part-time university work with full-time consulting.
Creating and Using Rubrics to Support Student Learning
Rubrics are coherent sets of criteria for students’ work that include descriptions of levels of performance quality on the criteria. As such, they are an excellent means for connecting formative assessment (for learning) and summative assessment (grading).
The same criteria and performance quality that students aim for in a formative manner as they learn can become the basis for the students’ grades if students and teachers have a shared understanding of the criteria and performance descriptions. Rubrics are an excellent vehicle for involving students in their own assessment. This fosters student self-regulation of learning and helps develop students’ lifelong learning capabilities.
Rubrics are useful for teaching and assessing academic outcomes, especially those requiring authentic student performances, as well as thinking skills, creativity, collaboration, and approaches to learning.
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